Moto Instincts

Concept references

The A.P.E Barrier

Riding Style
-No hazards or cleared hazards
-Excellent Lead Time
-100% Evasive Potential
-Minor hazards
-Minor danger
-Average Lead Time
-75% Evasive Potential
-Moderate hazards
-Moderate danger
-Poor Lead Time
-50% Evasive Potential
-Critical hazards
-Critical Lead Time
-Critical danger
Ride Plans
-Ride Plan requires no adjustments
-Minor hazards along Ride Plan
-Consider Ride Plan changes to manage hazards, Lead Time, and Evasive Potential
-Moderate hazards along Ride Plan
-Modify Ride Plan to manage hazards, Lead Time, and Evasive Potential.
-High Stability Mode
-Consider Secondary Ride Plans
-Critical Hazards along Ride Plan
-Evasive motorcycle operation
-Rapid changes to velocity
-Initiate Secondary Ride Plans  

A.P.E Colour Coded Threat System


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13 Deadly Risks of Riding – The root causes of motorcycle accidents. Contains life-saving mindsets and potentially lethal bad habits.

Acceleration Zone – The 2nd stage of clutch engagement. Adequate friction is provided in the clutch for acceleration without bogging down the engine.

Accels – Coordinated clutch and throttle control to cause a mild acceleration of the motorcycle from a stand still.

Advanced Muscle Memory – Stage 4 of muscle memory used to stunt or race the motorcycle. Stunting pushes the motorcycle to preform manoeuvres not intended in the initial design. Racing pushes the limits of motorcycle machinery, stability, and traction to achieve breakneck speeds.

Advanced Ride Plans – Deal with the management of Passable and Impassable Hazards simultaneously.

APE – Acronym from the APE Risk Management System that stands for: Analyze, Plan, Execute.

APE Barrier – Applying the components of the APE Risk Management System to a motorcycle in motion. The acronym is developed further into: Hazard Analysis, Ride Plans, and Fluid Execution. The APE Barrier is a protective psychological barrier around the rider that keeps them safe.

APE Flow State – Applying the APE Risk Management System to motorcycle Flow State.

Arrive Alive Mindsets – Ways of thinking and acting that directly counteract the root causes of motorcycle accidents.

Attention ADD – When eyes and attention are shifted haphazardly around the environment. Such is an inefficient use of the eyes and attention capacity of the rider.

Basic Muscle Memory – Stage 2 of muscle memory used to control the movement of a motorcycle.

Basic Ride Plans – Deal with the management of Passable Hazards and roadway navigation.

Bike – Motorcycle.

Biker – Die hard motorcyclist.

Binocular Vision –  When vision is focused onto a narrow point.  Narrow visual focus results in a narrowly applied attention which can cause the rider to miss the big picture.

Blindspot – A visual restriction in the direction of travel.  Blindspots also refer to areas around vehicles or motorcyclists with limited or no visibility.

Brake Lever  – Located on the right handlebar; activates the front brake.  Supplies 70% of braking power.

Brake Pedal – Located below the right foot, activates the rear brake.  Supplies 30% of braking power.

Breaking From Traffic – Manoeuvring into free space on the roadway to accelerate ahead of traffic flow.

Camber – Road slope. Positive camber turns slope into the turn which requires less lean-angle to traverse. Off-camber turns slope away from the turn which requires more lean-angle to traverse. Off-camber turns can catch the motorcyclist off guard as a turn will requires more lean-angle than normal.

Centrifugal Force – A pseudo-force that acts at 90° to the outside of the turn. Centrifugal Force increases with tightness of turn and/or speed.

Cleared Hazards – A hazard(s) that has been eliminated or controlled.

Clutch – Disengages engine power from the drivetrain. Used for accelerating from a standstill and for switching gears.

Contact Patch – The bottom portion of the motorcycle tires that are in contact with the road surface.

Controlling a Hazard – Using specific operation to negate the effect of a hazard.

Corner Fluidity – The ability to carry momentum through a turn smoothly with precise Counter-Steering and the use of many controls consecutively.

Counter-Steering – The best way to control a motorcycle’s lean-angle and direction. Counter-Steering builds off of Push-Steering by pushing and pulling the handlebars to achieve precise, assertive motorcycle control.

Decels – Using the front brake to gently bring the motorcycle to a stop.

Drive Plans – The path that a motorist intends on travelling with their vehicle.

Eliminated a Hazard – The best way to deal with a threat, avoiding the hazard all together.

Environmental Hazard – Hazards caused by seasons, temperature, wind and weather.

Evasive Muscle Memory – Stage 3 of muscle memory used specifically for evading danger. Evasive Muscle Memory is consistent with assertive control inputs to change velocity rapidly.

Evasive Potential –The chance that the rider has to evade an unforeseen hazard given current conditions. Evasive Potential has 4 components: Available roadway, impassable objects, machine agility, and operator skill.  More is better.

Fallen Rider – A motorcyclist that has been killed in an accident.

Flow Surfing – Refers to travelling slightly faster than traffic flow.  Doing so allows the rider to be in more control of their progression through the environment.

Fluid Execution – A combination of machine connection and smooth control manipulation. The 3rd component of the APE Barrier.

Forks – Suspensions tubes that connect the front wheel to the motorcycle.

Friction – Inconsistencies between two surfaces pressed together which causes a force that resists movement between the two surfaces. Static friction has no movement between the surfaces. Kinetic friction has movement between the surfaces (sliding).

Friction Zone – The 1st stage of clutch engagement. Power from the engine begins to transfer to the rear tire but does not provide enough power to accelerate the motorcycle.

Glare – Excess light causing partial or total blindness.

Gravitational Force – Force due to gravity. Acts straight down towards the ground.

Grid-Lock – Refers to bumper to bumper traffic when vehicles get backed up during rush hour.

Hazard – A condition that poses a danger to the well-being of a rider or their motorcycle.

Hazard Analysis – Specific strategies for identifying, eliminating, controlling, and mitigating hazards. The 1st component in the APE Barrier.

Hazard Entry Points – Points where hazards can enter the roadway and become a threat to the motorcyclist.

Hazard Indicators – Some motorcycles have a “hazard button” which illuminate all signals intermittently. Typically used to indicate trouble or a slow moving vehicle/motorcycle.

Hazard Stacks – 2 or more hazards within the immediate surroundings; or physically on top of one another. Ideally, Hazards Stacks are prevented from forming and when they are encountered, isolated and controlled one at a time.

Hazardous Traffic Formations – Vehicle and motorcycle positions that precede a collision.

Hidden Driveway – A hidden or non-obvious road that connects to the road currently being travelled.

High Side – When a motorcycle loses traction, slides out and then regains traction partway into the slide. This causes the bike to snap upright, which can catapult the rider into the air.

High Stability Mode – An upright motorcycle with a constant velocity. This riding style is prepared for any hazard and is consistent with the green areas of the Traction Matrix.

Impassable Hazards – Hazards that can cause instant deceleration if contacted.  The Impassable Hazards chapters deal with vehicles and animals, but also includes trees, poles, guardrails, curbs or any other immovable object. Impassable Hazards cannot be passed through or over, they must be avoided.

Invisibility Mindset – Pretending that you are invisible. A powerful tool to encourage defensive riding tendencies.

Lane Congestion – Refers to a lane being backed up with vehicles.  Risk goes up due to created Blindspots and increased chances of being cut-off.

Lane Position – Refers to various physical positions within a lane which come with different variables.

Lead Time  – A measure of speed vs Line of Sight and is measured in Ride Plan seconds. 2 or less is poor, 3 is average, 4+ is excellent.

Lean-Angle – The current amount of lean a motorcycle has.  The angle is created by motorcycle suspension vs the ground.  More Lean-Angle is consistent with more risk due to more delicate machine stability.

Line of Sight – How far you can see until sight is obstructed by an object or the environment. More is better.

Long Term Ride Plan – Deal with foresight and preparedness for the intended travel route with regards to Unavoidable Hazards.

Low Side – When a motorcycle loses traction and slides onto its side.

Low Speed Stability – Balancing the motorcycle while travelling slow in a straight line, U-turn, circle, figure 8, or serpentine patterns. Riding the clutch/throttle/rear brake will increase the control a rider has while performing these manoeuvres.

Mass  – Combined weight of rider and motorcycle.

Mentality Hazards –  Hazards created by the way a motorcyclist thinks and acts.  The most influential aspect of an individuals ability to manage risk.

Mitigating a Hazard – To lessen the severity of a hazards effect with gear.

Momentum – Is the result of an object in motion. Momentum will increase if weight or speed increases (momentum = speed x weight)

Murphy’s Law – Something that can go wrong, will go wrong.

Muscle Memory – Repetitive use of machine controls which results in the machine becoming an extension of the operator’s body. Strong muscle memory causes the rider to control the motorcycle subconsciously.

Nose-Angle – The comparison of a vehicle’s nose direction in reference to the painted lines of it’s lane.  The Nose-Angle can be used to determine where a vehicle is going.

Operational Hazards – Hazards created by a rider who is unfamiliar with motorcycle physics or has underdeveloped muscle memory.  The second most influential aspect of an individuals ability to manage risk.

No-Ride Zones – Areas around vehicles that increase the risk of collisions.

Panic Reaction – A Panic Reaction is an involuntary reaction that stems from the flight or fight reflex in response to danger.  The three base Panic Reactions are: overreaction, incorrect action, freezing up.

Panoramic Vision  – Lightlyin re unfocusing the eyes in order to spread attention into peripheral vision.

Passable Hazards – Hazards that can be created by the road surface, or foreign material on the road. Most Passable Hazards can be passed over with proper motorcycle control.

Pass Window – The amount of time in seconds needed to perform a pass on an undivided highway.

Pavement Pattern – Repeating pavement characteristics within a Pavement Section that the motorcyclist can use to predict incoming hazards.

Pavement Section – Road construction and repairs are done in sections.  These sections will have or develop road characteristics that are common within the section. Pavement Patch – Pavement patches indicate where repairs have been done to the road or foundation underneath. Pavement Strip – When roads are constructed, they are laid down in strips slightly larger than one lane.  Stability Hazards can form over time between strips. Peripheral Perception – Relying on peripheral vision to navigate and spot danger. Peripheral Perception utilizes Binocular/Panoramic Vision to efficiently guide vision and attention. Point of Intersection – The point where a collision is about to take place.  It is a combination of timing and Ride Plan vs Drive Plan. Preparing for Launch – Moving into a free lane while approaching a red light or stop sign.  Being in a free lane allows the rider to accelerate ahead of traffic.

Push-Steering – The easiest way to learn how to manoeuvre a motorcycle by pushing on the left/right handlebar. To go right: look right (where you want to go), push right, go right. To go left: look left, push left, go left.

Rapid Accels – Coordinated clutch and throttle control to cause a moderate to heavy acceleration of the motorcycle from a standstill or slow roll.

Rapid Decels – Front brake (with additional rear brake option) to quickly reduce the speed of the motorcycle in preparation for a turn or evasion.

The Ready Position – The best position at a stand-still.  Left food down, clutch pulled in, right foot pressing rear brake, transmission in 1st. The rider is visible due to the rear brake being activated and is ready to go into motion.

Ride Plan – A planned line that the motorcyclist intends to travel with their machine. The Ride Plan is the primary form of risk management available to the rider. The 2nd component of the APE Barrier.

The Right of Weight – Is a play on words relating to the Right-of-Way. The bigger heavier vehicle will win in a collision therefore giving it the Right of Weight. Motorcycles never have the Right of Weight.

Risk – The possibility of an outcome. Risk can be good or bad but throughout Moto Instincts risk is associated with negative outcomes. The greater the risk, the greater the chance of an accident, damage, injury, or death.

Road Rage – Being overwhelmed with anger due to the actions of another motorist.

RPM – Revolutions per minute. Used to describe engine speed. Generally, as RPM’s increase so does power output.

Secondary Ride Plan – An alternative route planned in the event of an emergency.

Shift Lever – Lever under the left foot. lift up or press down to shift the transmission into a higher/lower gear.  Most motorcycles have a 1 down, 5/6 up shift pattern with neutral between 1st and 2nd gear.

Shoulder –Refers to the section of pavement between the lane and ditch.  They can vary in size and not all roads are built with a shoulder.  Shoulders have an increased risk of Traction Hazards.

Skill Bubble – The sum of a motorcyclist’s physical and mental skill.

Spooked – Refers to a scared animal on the run.

Stability – Refers to the overall balance of the machine. The rider must balance motorcycle operation vs gravity in order to maintain stability.

Stability Hazards – Hazards that can affect the balance of the machine and/or rider when ridden over.

Stunting Traffic – Reducing speed early to stunt the flow of rearward traffic before a stopping point up ahead.

Stall Zone – The 3rd stage of clutch engagement.  Provides too much friction within the clutch which causes the engine to bog down or stall.

Tank Slapper + Speed Wobbles – Results from the front and rear tire coming out of alignment. A mild misalignment will cause a wobble as the tires try to come into alignment. A major misalignment will cause the handlebars to snap back and forth violently as the tires try to come into alignment.

Target Fixation – When the rider happens upon an unforeseen hazard causing a freezing Panic Reaction which locks the eyes onto the hazard. If the rider cannot break their Target Fixation, they will likely make contact with the hazard.

Tar Snake – Long pieces of tar used to seal cracks in the pavement.

Telegraphs – Small mannerisms and movements given off by motorists or animals that can be used to predict their next move.

Threshold Braking – Maximum braking force achievable, before available friction is exceeded, and traction is lost.

Throttle – The machine control that supplies more gas to the engine. More throttle results in more power output.

Traction – Amount of available friction between the motorcycle tires and the road. When traction is lost, the motorcycle will begin to slide with 1 or both tires.

Traction Hazards – Hazards that will cause a drop in friction when ridden over.

Traffic Artery – Refer to the amount of traffic flow allowed by a roadway.  They can be school/residential, minor, medium, and freeway/highway.  Larger arteries tend to offer better Line of Sight with less Hazard Entry Points as well as hazard frequency.

Traffic Bubble – An area of low traffic density that make a great place for a motorcyclist to hang out in.

Traffic Dynamics – Refers to standard traffic flow principles and the variables that affect traffic flow.

Transition Zone – Where one Pavement Section meets another, a dirt road, bridge, or train tracks. Tunnel Vision – When attention is focused on an object or direction for too long which can cause hazards to go unnoticed.

Unavoidable Hazards – Hazards that cannot be eliminated or controlled; only mitigated. They are broken down into Vision and Environmental Hazards.

Vanishing Point – Where Line of Sight ends due to bends in the road.

Vehicle Shield – The rider can shield themself from potential collisions by placing a vehicle between them and a Hazard Entry Point.

Velocity  – Has two components, speed and direction.

Vision Hazard – Anything that causes any reduction in visibility.

Washboard – Continual bumps in a washboard pattern that form on gravel roads due to the upwards and downwards force applied from vehicles.  Avoid braking or turning in these areas.  Heavy vehicles can cause sunken tracks within pavement sections can create a washboard effect as well.

Wheel-Angle – The angle of the steering wheels compared to the vehicle chassis that is used to determine the motorist’s Drive Plan.